Flag Counter
JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS
J. Intell. Syst. Appl.
E-ISSN: 2667-6893

Medicinal Plants for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease

Koronavirüs Hastalığının Önlenmesi ve Tedavisi İçin Şifalı Bitkiler

How to cite: Otlu , Bereketoğlu C, Kıran TR, Bay Karabulut A. Medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of coronavirus disease. J Intell Syst Appl 2021; 4(1): 74-85.

Full Text: PDF, in English.

Total number of downloads: 132

Title: Medicinal Plants for Prevention and Treatment of Coronavirus Disease

Abstract: The 2019-nCoV (new Corona Virus) outbreak was announced by the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Emergency Public Health Organization, on January 30, 2020, and WHO reported the 2019-nCoV pathogen to SARSCoV-2 and Corona virus Disease 2019 on 12 February. (COVID2019). COVID-19 was officially recognized as a Pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. Plants have been used all over the world as traditional medicine for centuries to treat many chronic infections, including viral diseases. In recent years, scientists have been trying to verify the potential of functional compounds to protect human health and cure diseases with their research on functional and nutraceutical foods. Traditional medicinal plants have a long history supported by many researches such as maintaining a healthy life, toxins taken in daily life, fighting and preventing diseases, and longevity. Studies on the antiviral, antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties of ethnomedical plants and natural phytochemicals can be considered as a great potential drug source against various ailments as well as Covid-19 treatment. Based on this study, plant extracts increase immunity with the increase in the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes in viral infections such as Covid-19, which can lead to fatal consequences, regulating the production and release of proinflammatory cytokines, showing an anti-inflammatory effect with a decrease in the C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, It appears to have a positive effect such as interfering with the development and potential antiviral agent activity. In this study, phytochemicals and effects associated with COVID-19 infection were reviewed.

Keywords: COVID-19; medicinal plants; herbal drugs


Başlık: Koronavirüs Hastalığının Önlenmesi ve Tedavisi İçin Şifalı Bitkiler

Özet: 2019-nCoV (yeni Korona Virüsü) salgını Uluslararası Acil Halk Sağlığı Kuruluşu olan Dünya Sağlık Örgütü (WHO) tarafından 30 Ocak 2020'de ilan edildi ve DSÖ 12 Şubat'ta, 2019-nCoV patojenini SARS-CoV-2 ve Corona virüs Hastalığı 2019 (COVID-2019) olarak adlandırdı. COVID-19 11 Mart 2020’de resmi olarak WHO tarafından Pandemi olarak kabul edildi. Bitkiler tüm dünyada, viral hastalıklar da dahil olmak üzere birçok kronik enfeksiyonu tedavi etmek için yüzyıllardır geleneksel ilaç olarak kullanılmaktadır. Son yıllarda, bilim adamları fonksiyonel ve nutrasötik gıdalar üzerinde yaptıkları araştırmalarla fonksiyonel bileşiklerin insan sağlığını koruma ve hastalıkları iyileştirme potansiyelini doğrulamaya çalışmaktadırlar. Geleneksel tıbbi bitkiler, sağlıklı yaşamın sürdürülmesi, günlük hayatta alınan toksinler, hastalıklarla mücadele ve önleme, uzun ömür gibi birçok araştırma ile desteklenmiş uzun bir geçmişe sahiptir. Etnomedikal bitkiler ve doğal fitokimyasalların antiviral, antiinflamatuar ve antioksidan özellikleri üzerine yapılan araştırmalar, Covid-19 tedavisinin yanısıra çeşitli rahatsızlıklara karşı büyük bir potansiyel ilaç kaynağı olarak kabul edilebilir. Bu çalışmadan yola çıkarak bitki özütlerinin Covid-19 gibi ölümcül sonuçlara yol açabilen viral enfeksiyonlarda beyaz kan hücrelerinin ve lenfositlerin sayısındaki yükselişle bağışıklığa arttırma, proinflamatuar sitokinlerin üretimini ve salımını düzenleme, C-reaktif protein ve eritrosit sedimantasyon oranındaki düşüşle anti-inflamatuar bir etki gösterme, virüsün gelişimine müdahale etme gibi olumlu etki ve potansiyel antiviral ajan aktivitesi sergilediği görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada COVID-19 enfeksiyonu ile ilişkili fitokimyasallar ve etkileri derlenmiştir.

Anahtar kelimeler: COVİD-19; şifalı bitkiler; bitkisel ilaçlar


Bibliography:
  • Malik YS, Kumar N, Sircar S, Kaushik R, Bhat S, Dhama K, Gupta P, Goyal K, Singh MP, Ghoshal U, El Zowalaty ME, O R V, Yatoo MI, Tiwari R, Pathak M, Patel SK, Sah R, Rodriguez Morales AJ, Ganesh B, Kumar P, Singh RK. Coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19): Challenges and a global perspective. Pathogens 2020; 9(7): 519.
  • Lu H, Stratton CW, Tang Y. Outbreak of pneumonia of unknown aetiology in Wuhan, China: The mystery and the miracle. Journal of Medical Virology 2020; 92(4): 401-402.
  • World Health Organization. WHO director-general's remarks at the media briefing on 2019-nCoV on 11 February 2020. https://www.who.int/dg/speeches/ detail/who-directorgeneral-sremarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-2019-ncov-on11february-2020
  • Bilal M, Khan MI, Nazir MS, Ahmed I, Iqbal HMN. Coronaviruses and COVID-19 - complications and lessons learned for the future. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 2020; 14(1): 725-731.
  • Singh R, Kaushik S, Badal R, Sahoo S. Ayurveda and its medicinal plants: Halting the surge of Covid-19. Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine 2020; 6(2): 90-99.
  • Kasmi Y, Khataby K, Souiri A, Ennaji MM. Coronaviridae: 100,000 years of emergence and reemergence. In Emerging and Reemerging Viral Pathogens (editor Ennaji MM), Academic Press, 2020, pp. 127-149.
  • Balmeh N, Mahmoudi S, Mohammadi N, Karabedianhajiabadi A. Predicted therapeutic targets for COVID-19 disease by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 and its related receptors. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked 2020; 20: 100407.
  • Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, Wang W, Song H, Huang B, Zhu N. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: Implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet 2020; 395(10224): 565-574.
  • Wan Y, Shang J, Graham R, Baric RS, Li F. Receptor recognition by the novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS coronavirus. Journal of Virology 2020; 94(7): e00127-20.
  • Petrosillo N, Viceconte G, Ergonul O, Ippolito G, Petersen E. COVID-19, SARS and MERS: Are they closely related? Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2020; 26: 729-734.
  • Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Qiu Y, Wang J, Liu Y, Wei Y, Xia J, Yu T, Zhang X, Zhang L. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel corona virus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. Lancet 2020; 395: 507-513.
  • Ranney ML, Griffeth, V, Jha AK. Critical supply shortages-The need for ventilators and personal protective equipment during the Covid19 pandemic. New England Journal of Medicine 2020; 382: 41.
  • Holshue ML, DeBolt C, Lindquist S, Lofy KH, Wiesman J, Bruce H, Spitters C, Ericson K, Wilkerson S, Tural A, Diaz G, Cohn A, Fox LA, Patel A, Pharm D, Gerber SI, Kim L, Tong S, Lu X, Lindstrom S, Pallansch MA, Weldon WC, Biggs HM, Uyeki TM, Pillai SK. First case of 2019 novel coronavirus in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine 2020; 382: 929-936.
  • Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, Shi Z, Hu Z, Zhong W, Xiao G. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research 2020; 30: 269-271.
  • Gao J, Tian Z, Yang X. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. BioScience Trends Advance Publication 2020; 14(1): 72-73.
  • Khamitov RA, Loginova S, Shchukina VN, Borisevich SV, Maksimov VA, Shuster AM. Antiviral activity of arbidol and its derivatives against the pathogen of severe acute respiratory syndrome in the cell cultures. Voprosy Virusologii 2008; 53(4): 9-13.
  • Boriskin YS, Leneva IA, Pecheur EI, Polyak SJ. Arbidol: A broad-spectrum antiviral compound that blocks viral fusion. Current Medicinal Chemistry 2008; 15(10): 997-1005.
  • Lu H. Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Bioscience Trends 2020; 14(1): 69-71.
  • Patel SK, Saikumar G, Rana J, Dhama J, Yatoo MI, Tiwari R, Rodríguez-Morales AJ, Dhama K. Dexamethasone: A boon for critically ill COVID-19 patients? Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease 2020; 37: 101844.
  • Singh R, Kaushik S, Badal R, Sahoo S. Ayurveda and its medicinal plants: Halting the surge of Covid-19. Journal of Ayurvedic and Herbal Medicine 2020; 6(2): 90-99.
  • Salehi B, Krochmal-Marczak B, Skiba D, Patra JK, Das JK, Das G, Popovic-Djordjevic JB, Kostic AZ, Kumar NVA, Tripathi A, Al-Snafi AE, Arserim-Ucar DK, Konovalov DA, Csupor D, Shukla I, Azmi L, Mishra AP, Sharifi-Rad J, Sawicka B, Martins N, Taheri Y, Fokou PVT, Capasso R, Martorel M. Convolvulus plant-A comprehensive review from phytochemical composition to pharmacy. Phytotherapy Research 2019; 34: 315-328.
  • harifi-Rad M, Roberts TH, Matthews KR, Bezerra CF, Morais-Braga MFB, Coutinho HDM, Sharopov F, Salehi B, Yousaf Z, Sharifi-Rad M, Contreras MDM, Varoni EM, Verma DR, Iriti M, Sharifi-Rad J. Ethnobotanyof the genus taraxacum-phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity. Phytotherapy Research 2018; 32: 2131-2145.
  • Kamboj VP. Herbal medicine. Current Science 2000; 78: 35-39.
  • Kannamreddy V, Jeeva M, Patnaik GP, Narmadha R, Reddy PLSL, Reddy BT, Santhoshkumar D. Immunity boosters to combat Covid-19 pandemics. Journal of Experimental Biology and Agricultural Sciences 2020; 8(1): 119-125.
  • Dhama K, Saminathan M, Jacob SS, Singh M, Karthik K, Amarpal, Tiwari R, Sunkara LT, Malik YS, Singh RK. Effect of immunomodulation and immunomodulatory agents on health with some bioactive principles, modes of action and potent biomedical applications. International Journal of Pharmacology 2015; 11(4): 253-290.
  • Benarba B, Pandiella A. Medicinal plants as sources of active molecules against COVID-19. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2020; 11: 1189.
  • Balmeh N, Mahmoudi S, Mohammadi N, Karabedianhajiabadi A. Predicted therapeutic targets for COVID-19 disease by inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 and its related receptors. Informatics in Medicine Unlocked 2020; 20: 100407.
  • Thabti I, Albert Q, Philippot S, Dupire F, Westerhuis B, Fontanay S, Risler A, Kassab T, Elfalleh W, Aferchichi A, Varbanov M. Advances on antiviral activity of Morus spp. Plant extracts: Human coronavirus and virus-related respiratory tract infections in the spotlight. Molecules 2020; 25(8): 1876.
  • Zhang D, Wu K, Zhang X, Deng S, Peng B. In silico screening of Chinese herbal medicines with the potential to directly inhibit 2019 novel coronavirus. Journal of Integrative Medicine 2020; 18(2): 152-158.
  • Riaz G, Naik SN, Garg M, Chopra R. Phytochemical composition of an underutilized plant Sorrel/Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) cultivated in India. Letters in Applied NanoBioScience 2021; 10(2): 2138-2147.
  • Chhikara BS, Rathi B, Poonam JS. Corona virus SARSCoV-2 disease COVID-19: Infection, prevention and clinical advances of the prospective chemical drug therapeutics. Chemical Biology Letters 2020; 7(1): 63-72.
  • Alam MA, Quamri MA, Sofi G, Ayman U, Ansari S, Ahad M. Understanding COVID-19 in the light of epidemic disease described in Unani medicine. Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy 2020; 35(4): 20200136.
  • Balkrishna A, Pokhrel S, Singh J, Varshney A. Withanone from withania somnifera may inhibit novel coronavirus (COVID-19) entry by disrupting interactions between viral S-protein receptor binding domain and host ACE2 receptor. BMC Virology 2020; Preprint Version 1.
  • Balkrishna A, Pokhrel S, Varshney A. Tinocordiside from tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) may curb SARS-CoV-2 contagion by disrupting the electrostatic interactions between host ACE2 and viral S-protein receptor binding domain. Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening 2021; 24(10):1795-1802.
  • Priyabrata P, Pritishova B, Debajyoti D, Panda SK. Ocimum sanctum Linn. A reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: An overview. Pharmacognosy Reviews 2010; 4(7): 95-105.
  • Vinaya M, Kudagi BL, Kamdod MA, Swamy M. Bronchodilator activity of ocimum sanctum Linn.(tulsi) in mild and moderate asthmatic patients in comparison with salbutamol: A single-blind cross-over study. International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology 2017; 6(3): 511-517.
  • Cohen MM. Tulsi-ocimum sanctum: A herb for all reasons. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 2014; 5(4): 251-259.
  • Pandey G, Madhuri S. Pharmacological activities of ocimum sanctum (Tulsi): A review. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 2010; 5(1): 61-66.
  • Sethi L, Bhadra P. A review paper on Tulsi plant (Ocimum sanctum L.) Indian Journal of Natural Sciences 2020; 10(60): 20854-20860.
  • Mucsi I, Gyulai Z, Beladi I. Combined effects of flavonoids and acyclovir against herpesviruses in cell cultures. Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica 1992; 39(2): 137-147.
  • Pandey R, Chandra P, Srivastava M, Mishra DK, Kumar B. Simultaneous quantitative determination of multiple bioactive markers in Ocimum sanctum obtained from different locations and its marketed herbal formulations using UPLC-ESIMS/ MS combined with principal component analysis. Phytochemical Analysis 2015; 26: 383-394.
  • Balkrishna A, Verma S, Solleti SK, Khandrika L, Varshney A. Calcio-herbal medicine divya-swasari-vati ameliorates SARS-CoV-2 spike protein-induced pathological features and inflammation in humanized Zebrafish model by moderating IL-6 and TNF-alpha? Cytokines. Journal of Inflammation Research 2020; 13: 1219-1243.
  • Itrat M, Khan TN, Riaz Z, Zulkifle M. Epidemic containment measures in Unani medicine and their contemporary relevance. Journal of Indian System of Medicine 2020; 8(2): 84-90.
  • Murck H. Symptomatic protective action of glycyrrhizin (Licorice) in COVID-19 infection. Frontiers in Immunology2020; 11: 1239.
  • Gangal N, Nagle V, Pawar Y, Dasgupta S. Reconsidering traditional medicinal plants to combat COVID-19. AIJR Preprints 2020; 1-6.
  • Chikhale RV, Gurav SC, Patil RB, Sinha SK, Prasad SK, Shakya A, Shrivastava SK, Gurav NS, Prasad RS. Sars-COV-2 host entry and replication inhibitors from Indian ginseng: an in-silico approach, Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2021; 39(12): 4510-4521.
  • Panyod S, Ho CT, Sheen LY. Dietary therapy and herbal medicine for COVID-19 prevention: A review and perspective. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine 2020; 10(4): 420-427.
  • Sinha SK, Prasad SK, Islam MA, Gurav SS, Patil RB, AlFaris NA, Aldayel TS AlKehayez NM, Wabaidur SM, Shakya A. Identification of bioactive compounds from Glycyrrhiza glabra as possible inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein and non-structural protein-15: a pharmacoinformatics study. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2020; 39(13): 4686-4700.
  • Krupanidhi S, Abraham Peele K, Venkateswarulu TC, Ayyagari VS, Nazneen Bobby M, John Babu D, Venkata Narayana A, Aishwarya G. Screening of phytochemical compounds of Tinospora cordifolia for their inhibitory activity on SARS-CoV-2: an in silico study. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2021; 39(15): 5799-5803.
  • Jahan I, Onay A. Potentials of plant-based substance to inhabit and probable cure for the COVID-19. Turkish Journal of Biology 2020; 44: 228-241.
  • Subbaiyan A, Ravichandran K, Singh SV, Sankar M, Thomas P, Dhama K, Malik YS, Singh RK, Chaudhuri P. In silico molecular docking analysis targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and selected herbal constituents. Journal of Pure and Applied Microbiology 2020; 14: 989-998.
  • Ghosh R, Chakraborty A, Biswas A, Chowdhuri S. Evaluation of green tea polyphenols as novel corona virus (SARS CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) inhibitors-an in silico docking and molecular dynamics simulation study. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2021; 39(12): 4362-4374.
  • Parida PK, Paul D, Chakravorty D. Nature to nurture-identifying phytochemicals from Indian medicinal plants as prophylactic medicine by rational screening to be potent against multiple drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. Europe PMC, ChemXriv Preprint, Verison 1, 2020.
  • Ang L, Lee HW, Kim A, Lee JA, Zhang J, Lee MS. Herbal medicine for treatment of children diagnosed with COVID19: A review of guidelines. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 2020; 39: 101174.
  • Xu J, Zhang Y. Traditional Chinese medicine treatment of COVID-19. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice 2020; 39: 101165.
  • Luo H, Tang Q-L, Shang Y-X, Liang S-B, Yang M, Robinson N, Liu J-P. Can Chinese medicine be used for prevention of Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19)? A review of historical classics, research evidence and current prevention programs. Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine 2020; 26(4): 243-250.
  • Luo L, Jiang J, Wang C, Fitzgerald M, Hu W, Zhou Y, Zhang H, Chen S. Analysis on herbal medicines utilized for treatment of COVID-19. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B 2020; 10(7): 1192-1204.
  • Hensel A, Bauer R, Heinrich M, Spiegler V, Kayser O, Hempel G, Kraft K. Challenges at the time of COVID-19: Opportunities and innovations in antivirals from nature. Planta Medica 2020; 86: 659-664.
  • Silveira D, Prieto-Garcia JM, Boylan F, Estrada O, FonsecaBazzo YM, Jamal CM, Magalhães PO, Oliveira E, Tomczyk M, Heinrich M. COVID-19: Is there evidence for the use of herbal medicines as adjuvant symptomatic therapy? Frontiers in Pharmacology 2020; 11: 581840.
  • Enmozhi SK, Raja K, Sebastine I, Joseph J. Andrographolide as a potential inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2 main protease: An in silico approach. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2021; 39(9): 3092-3098.
  • Chen H, Du Q. Potential natural compounds for preventing SARS-CoV-2 (2019- nCoV) infection. Researchgate Preprints 2020; 2020010358.
  • Mu C, Sheng Y, Wang Q, Amin A, Li X, Xie Y. Potential compound from herbal food of Rhizoma Polygonati for treatment of COVID-19 analyzed by network pharmacology: Viral and cancer signaling mechanisms. Journal of Functional Foods 2021; 77: 104149.
  • Goswami D, Kumar M, Ghosh SK, Das A. Natural product compounds in alpinia officinarum and ginger are potent SARS-CoV-2 papainlike protease inhibitors. chemRxiv Preprint, Version 1, 2020.
  • Gyebi GA, Ogunro OB, Adegunloye AP, Ogunyemi, OM, Afolabi SO. Potential inhibitors of coronavirus 3chymotrypsin-like protease (3CL pro): An in silico screening of alkaloids and terpenoids from African medicinal plants. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 2021; 39(9): 3396-3408.
  • El-Aziz Abd NM, Mohamed GS, Awad OME, El-Sohaimy SA. Inhibition of COVID-19 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase by natural bioactive compounds: Molecular docking analysis. Research Square, Preprint, 2020.
  • Ruan Z, Liu C, Guo Y, He Z, Huang X, Jia X, Yang T. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV: Virtual screening of potential inhibitors targeting RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity (NSP12). Journal of Medical Virology 2021; 93: 389-400.
  • Huang YF, Bai C, He F, Xie Y, Zhou H. Review on the potential action mechanisms of Chinese medicines in treating coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Pharmacological Research 2020; 158: 104939.
  • Ma Q, Pan W, Li R, Liu B, Li C, Xie Y, Wang Z, Zhao J, Jiang H, Huang J, Shi Y, Dai J, Zheng K, Lif X, Yang Z. Liu Shen capsule shows antiviral and anti-inflammatory abilities against novel coronavirus SARS-CoV2 via suppression of NF-kB signaling pathway. Pharmacological Research 2020; 158: 104850.
  • Ang L, Lee HW, Kim A, Lee MS. Herbal medicine for the management of COVID-19 during the medical observation period: A review of guidelines. Integrative Medicine Research 2020; 9: 100465.
  • Liu M, Gao Y, Yuan Y, Yang K, Shi S, Tian J, Zhang J. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicine (Lianhuaqingwen) for treating COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Integrative Medicine Research 2021; 10(1): 100644.
  • Kwon S, Lee W, Jin C, Jang I, Jung WS, Moon SK, Cho KH. Could herbal medicine (Soshihotang) be a new treatment option for COVID-19? A narrative review. Integrative Medicine Research 2020; 9(3): 100480.
  • Lee DYW, Li QY, Liu J, Efferth T. Traditional Chinese herbal medicine at the forefront battle against COVID19: Clinical experience and scientific basis. Phytomedicine 2021; 80: 153337.
  • Nugraha RV, Ridwansyah H, Ghozali M, Khairani AF, Atik N. Traditional Herbal medicine candidates as complementary treatments for COVID-19: A review of their mechanisms, pros and cons. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020; 2560645: 1-12.
  • Zhang HT, Huang MX, Liu X, Zheng XC, Li XH, Chen GQ, Xia JY, Hong ZS. Evaluation of the adjuvant efficacy of natural herbal medicine on COVID-19: A retrospective matched case-control study. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 2020; 48(4): 779-792.
  • Srivastava AK, Kumar A, Misra N. On the inhibition of COVID-19 protease by Indian herbal plants: An in silico investigation. ArXiv Preprint, 2020.
  • Xiong X, Wang P, Su K, Cho WC, Xing Y. Chinese herbal medicine for coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pharmacological Research 2020; 160: 105056.
  • Zheng S, Baak JP, Li S, Xiao W, Ren H, Yang H, Gan Y, Wen C. Network pharmacology analysis of the therapeutic mechanisms of the traditional Chinese herbal formula Lian Hua Qing Wen in Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), gives fundamental support to the clinical use of LHQW. Phytomedicine 2020; 79: 153336.
  • Xia L, Shi Y, Su J, Friedemann T, Tao Z, Lu Y, Linga Y, Lv Y, Zhao R, Geng Z, Cui X, Lu H, Schroder S. Shufeng Jiedu, a promising herbal therapy for moderate COVID-19: Antiviral and anti-inflammatory properties, pathways of bioactive compounds, and a clinical real-world pragmatic study. Phytomedicine 2021; 85: 153390.
  • He T, Qu R, Qin C, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Shao X, Lu T. Potential mechanisms of Chinese herbal medicine that implicated in the treatment of COVID-19 related renal injury. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal 2020; 28: 1138-1148.
  • Chen G, Su W, Yang J, Luo D, Xia P, Jia W, Li X, Wang C, Lang S, Meng Q, Zhang Y, Ke Y, Fan A, Yang S, Zheng Y, Fan X, Qiao J. Chinese herbal medicine reduces mortality in patients with severe and critical coronavirus disease 2019: a retrospective cohort study. Frontiers Medicine 2020; 14(6): 752-759.
  • Xiong W, Wang G, Du J, Ai W. Efficacy of herbal medicine (Xuanfei Baidu decoction) combined with conventional drug in treating COVID-19: A pilot randomized clinical trial. Integrative Medicine Research 2020; 9(3): 100489.
  • Erlina L, Paramita RI, Kusuma WA, Fadilah F, Tedjo A, Pratomo IP, Ramadhanti NS, Nasution AK, Surado FK, Fitriawan A, Istiadi KA, Yanuar A. Virtual screening on Indonesian herbal compounds as COVID-19 supportive therapy: Machine learning and pharmacophore modelling approaches. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2021; under review, Research Square, Preprint.
  • Zong Y, Ding ML, Jia KK, Ma ST, Ju WZ. Exploring active compounds of DaYuan-Yin in treatment of COVID-19 based on network pharmacology and molecular docking method. Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs 2020; 4: 836-844.
  • Bahrami M, Kamalinejad M, Latifi SA, Seif F, Dadmehr M. Cytokine storm in COVID-19 and parthenolide: Preclinical evidence. Phytotherapy Research 2020; 34: 2429-2430.
  • Shahrajabian MH, Sun W, Cheng Q. Traditional herbal medicine for the prevention and treatment of cold and flu in the autumn of 2020, overlapped with COVID-19. Natural Product Communications 2020; 15(8): 1-10.
  • Shu Z, Zhou Y, Chang K, Liu J, Min X, Zhang Q, Sun J, Xiong Y, Zou Q, Zheng Q, Ji J, Poon J, Liu B, Zhou X, Li X. Clinical features and the traditional Chinese medicine therapeutic characteristics of 293 COVID-19 inpatient cases. Frontiers in Medicine 2020; 14(6): 760-775.
  • El Alami A, Fattah A, Chait A. Medicinal plants used for the prevention purposes during the covid-19 pandemic in Morocco. Journal of Analytical Sciences and Applied Biotechnology 2020; 2(1): 4-11.
  • Yan B, Jiang Z, Yuan J, Li M, Zeng J, Tang J, Lu ZK, Ding H, Xia J, Wang Q, Wang J, Xie H, Li W, Zhang N, Li H, Sang X, Wu L, Xiong X, Tang S, Li Y, Tao M, Xie C, Yu S. Effects and safety of herbal medicines among communitydwelling residents during COVID-19 pandemic: A large prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Phytomedicine 2021; 85: 153403.
  • Brahmbhatt RV. Herbal medicines in management and prevention of COVID-19. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2020; 9(3): 1221-1223.
  • Gbadamosi IT. Stay safe: Helpful herbal remedies in COVID-19 infection. African Journal of Biomedical Research 2020; 23: 131-133.
  • Sun Y, Hong Yang AW, Hung A, Lenon GB. Screening for a potential therapeutic agent from the herbal formula in the 4th edition of the Chinese Nnational guidelines for the initial-stage management of COVID-19 via molecular docking. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2020; 2020: 3219840.
  • Benarba B, Pandiella A. Medicinal plants as sources of active molecules against COVID-19. Frontiers in Pharmacology 2020; 11: 1189.
  • Kageyama Y, Aida K, Kawauchi K, Morimoto M, Ebisui T, Akiyama T, Nakamura T. Jinhua Qinggan granule, a Chinese herbal medicine against COVID-19, induces rapid changes in the plasma levels of IL-6 and IFN-gamma?. MedRxiv, Preprint, 2020.
  • Boozari M, Hosseinzadeh H. Natural products for COVID-19 prevention and treatment regarding to previous coronavirus infections and novel studies. Phytotherapy Research 2021; 35: 864-876.
  • Derouiche S. Current review on herbal pharmaceutical improve immune responses against COVID-19 infection.” Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology 2020; 12(3): 181-184.
  • Haggaga YA, El-Ashmawy NE, Okasha KM. Is hesperidin essential for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19 infection? Medical Hypotheses 2020; 144: 109957.